ϻջݻ
 
г »/ ݻ << »/ ݻ << ϻջݻ


     » ϻջݻ ϻջݻ : » . ˳, ˳ûٵ . óۻ, ѻ ϳݷ 񻽳 ѻ , г. ϻջ ݻ ϳݳ ݻ ѳۻ ٳ -ϻջϳ ݹݻ:

гɿ   

. سϳ س ϻջ

              

гɿ óճٳ . سϳ س ϻջ ĸ. » ϻջ ٳϳ ݷ 1476-: ճ ݳ ϳ ϻջ, ϳ ϳ ϳϳ ӻݳݻ ݻ 1849 ۿ . ѻ 1923ݪ ѳ . ʳۻ ϳݻ ٿ: ݳݳϳ ٳ γݻ, ݻ ϳݳ ϻջϳݻ ˳ѳϳݻ ٵ ճ , ó dz ճۻ (1601), γϳ (1608), ǽ (1894), . ѳ гݻ ( ݻ 1966 ˳ dz ѻ ٵ):

      ݹû ѳٳӳ, . سϳ س ϻջ ݳ . ͳ ϻջ ݿϳ ٳݳ ճ ٳ:

       1500, ϻջ ݻϳ۳ ó-ٳ :

       1499-1500 ϳݻ, ѳɿѳ ݻ Ǧ ûٵ, ϻջ ݹӳ - ûٵ: 1616 ѳɿѳ ˳ ɿ ûٵ յ ׳ ɿ ϳûٵ, ϻջ ϳ ݹӳ ϻջ ݻ, . : λ ճ ϳ 1965, 񹻳ٵ Իݹ . (ݳ˳ ٪ óѳ ׳ ǻ): ٻ ӳ˳ٻ ճݻ ϳ 1985 (ûٵ ѳɿѳ س س׻ݻ, ݳ˳ ٪ ׳ ٳϻ):

       1995 񻽳 ٳ: . ճ ѳݹ 23 ٵ 1995, ӻٵ . óۻ (ûٵ ѳɿѳ  ѳ ڳ ڳᵻݻ, ݳ˳ͪ ׳ ٳϻ, ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ):

       ϻջ ݹϿ ݳ ݳ (1874), û (1888), ݷϳ- (1912),ٿ ۳ ߳ϳݨӳݳݣ ߳ ݻ ݳ ݻݳ۳, ˳ (1452-1604), ϳ (1733), ϳݻ ѳݪ ߻ ۳ ÿ ĺ.-. гɿ ٿ ݻ ѳϳϳ ϳϳ : ϳݻ ٻ ٳ 1993-1996 ݻݪ ݳ˳ӻûٵ 񵳽 ѳ ﳷ ݹ ݻ ٿ:

      û ó ϻջ ó ݻ 񻽳ݻ: 1976 ϳ . ݳ ϳ ߿ (ûٵ ѳɿѳ ), 1983ݪ . سϳ ϳ (ûٵ ѳɿѳ ѳݿ ջ), 1992ݪ . ͳ ϳ (ûٵ ѳɿѳ سݻ, ݳ˳ ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ), 12 ٵ 1993ݪ . (ûٵ ѳɿѳ . γ ³ٳ ܳϻݻ):

      28 س 1991 ػ ջ ߳ӳ-ݳݹ (ûٵ ѳɿѳ γ ׻ յݻ, ݳ˳ͪ ׳ ٳϻ, ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ٻ): 1991 ݳ . ͳ ϻջ ѻ ӳ, 6 ٵ 1996, ɻ , ݳ˳ӻûٵ - гݳϳ û, ˳ ܳѳݻ ߳ӳ-ݳݹ (ݳ˳ ٪ ѳ ﳷݻ 㻳 յݻ ѳɿѳ ﳷ Ƿ ǽ): 1992, (ûٵ . ÿ, ߳ ѳݷ ݪ ÿ):

    . سϳ س ϻջ Ͽ ݻ ͻ.- ݳ ,г ϻջ ݻ λ , гٳ . յɻ ٳݳ, . ѳݻ ѳݹ . гϳ ų ϻ :

    26 2000 ,ѳݳûٵ .ϳ,ݳ˳ûٵ .ó۳, ϻջ ݹӳٳ 500 ٻ ,. ٿ ϻջ ϻ ɻݻ ( ٵ Ƿ ϻ)

. Ƿ ϻջ

     1930, ѳ۳ ٿ, ݳ˳ӻûٵ ѳ . γ ػ : ϳ 26 . 1933, ӻٵ . γ ػ :

       ϻջ Ͻݿ ݻ ٿ ճ, û , ݳ, ݷϳ ݳ ϳ ,׳ ճͿ ˳ 廳ݣ

      1973-1973, ϳݳ ߳ ݻ: 1984-1987 ݻ, ݳϳ ݻ 񻽳ݻ, ϳ ݳ ӳݳ ۳ٳݻ, ճ (ݳ˳ ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ճ ϻ), ϳ . ϳ (1986):

      1984, û (ûٵ .. ٳϻ) :

      10 ٵ 1989, ݳ˳ӻûٵ гݳϳ û, ٿ ϳݷݳ г۳ ߳ ѻ ߳-յ (ݳ˳ ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ݹ ݻ):

      Ͽ ݻ Ϳ . ѳϻ ų:

     ٿ ,.. 7 ݦ ,ѳݹ ϻջ ݳû

. ϻջ       

   ڻ ջݻ гɿ ϻջ ճ : 1923, ɿٳۿ- ѳϳϳ ճݻ ٿ . ʳ ϻջ:

      1936, ճݻ ٿ , ѳ۳ ٿ 1937 ϳ . ϻջݪ û ݳ 1955:

      1955, ϻջ ݳϳ ѳϳϳ ϳ , ѳݹ ݻ 25-26 ٵ 1965,ӻٵ 鳽 Իݹ .忻ݣ

      ϻջ ݻ, ݳ, ݷϳ û :

      ݷϳ ϳ 1985 (ûٵ ѳɿѳ  ٵ ǽ γ γݻ ݻ), û 1987 (ûٵ ѳɿѳ  ܳ ܳ), 1986ݪ . ϳ , 1987ݪ . ͳ ϳ (ûٵ ѳɿѳ  ij ), 1990ݪ . ϳ (ûٵ ٻϳݳ . ):

      1990 , ɳ س տ ߳ӳ-ݳݹ (ûٵ ٻϳݳ . ѳ ׳ݻݻ, ݳ˳ͪ ѳɿѳ ﳷ Ƿ ǽ, ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ٻ): 23 1994, ӻ ɳ, ݳ˳ӻûٵ гݳϳ û, ݳѳݻ ߳ӳ-ݳݹ (ݳ˳ ٪ ѳ ﳷݻ 㻳 յݻ), 20 س 1998, ϳݷݳ . γ ݹ (񹻳ٵ ѳ гٳɻ , ߳ յ γ гٳɻ):

     ϻջ ٿ Ϳ . ػ廳 ų,

       ݻ .

      ٿ ѳݹ ϻջ ݳû

. ͳ ϻջ

     ػ ջ ٳݳݹ ѳϳϳ ѳ , ɳ ó гɿ ݳ ѳ ᷻ ݹ . سϳ س ϻջ . ͳ ϻջ ٿ, ûٵ ϳ ճ ڳ . ۻ . ˳û:

     ϻջ ٳϳ ѳ 1429: 1535ݪ ʳ . гɿ ٿ, 1784ݪ ݳ , 1849ݪ . ɿݻ , 1 1850ݪ û :

     гɿ ߳ݳ ĸ.-ľ. ͳ . سϳ س ϻջ . ͳ ϻջ ݻ:

     . ۻﳷ,ϻջ ϳ 񳵳 ͳ۳ . 񳹳, 1991 ѻݦ ӳ:

     1976, . ͳ ϻջ óճϳû ó ų ᷳû ѳٳ ͳûٵ, ϳ ϻջ ճ߻ ɳݻ óճٳ:

     ϻջ ѳݹ ݳϿ ϳ 10 ٵ 1972, ݳûٵ . γ ػ ,   ݳ˳ûٵ û . . 뻳: ݳϳ ˳ݻ 1982, ѳݹ ϳ 1 س 1983, ӻٵ . γ ػ (ݳ˳ͪ óѳ ׳ ׻, ٪ ׳ ճ ϳ):

     ϻջ ٿ ճ (ѳɿѳ 㻳), û (ѳɿѳ ѳݿ ) ݻݳ:

     1980, ﻳ ϳ ߳ӳ-յ

(ٳ . . ۻ ٿ ߳ س ۻ):

     1986-1987, ϳ ݻݳ , 񻽳 1991:

     1988, . óۻ ûٵ, ݻݳ ѳݹϳ ٿ ϻջ ѳݳݻ ٳ . . ۻ ٵ: 1993, ϻջ óճϳ  ϳ ٳ . ۻ ˳ ߳ӳ ϻջûݦ ѳ:

     1993, ϻջ ٳ , ٿ, ɻ ܳѳݻ ߳ӳ-ݳݹ (񹻳ٵ Ƿ, ػݿ ۻݻ, ۻﳷ ճ, ݳ˳ͪ ׳ ٳϻ, ٪ ׳񳷿 ɳݻ, ݹϳͪ Ȼ Գ):

     1998 ϻջ ݻݳٳ 񻽳 :

     ͻ ó ų ѳٳ û ǿɻݦ ѳݹ:

. ڳ ϻջ

      гɿ ݻ óճٳ . ڳ ϻջ ݳϿ ϳ 3 1934, ݳ˳ûٵ . ٿ: ݳϳ ˳ݻ , ϳ ϳ û ݳ 1962 .  1962 ϳ ϻջ ݻϳ ߿, ٿ ճ, ݷϳ, Ϫ ݻݻ :

       1988-1989, ϻջ 񻽳 :

      ٿ ѳݹ ϻջ ݳ . ڳ ͵ݳ г :

          

ݻ

. ڳ ϻջ

       1930ϳ ϳݻ ǽ ݻ ݳݳϳ ϻջ,ͪ dzϳ ֿ ݳ ѳۻ ٿ ÿϳϻ ϻջ ۹ .ٿ ӻٵ4 .1934ݣ 1940 ϳ . ڳ ϻջ ͪ 1952. ٿ . ճ,û ݷϳ ϻջ ճ . ų (ݻϳ . ų ݳ˳ó):

     . ڳ ϻջ ѳݹϳ ֿ г ˳, ٿ 1982 ϳݷݳ ɻ ݳѳݻ ߳ (񹻳ٵ . ſ , ݳ˳ ٪ 㳷׻):

    1997-1998, ˳ :

    ϻջ ٿ ͻ . dz ݳϳ . ڳ :  

(ؿǿ)

. ͳ ϻջ

    . ͳ ϻջ . ų ߿ ϳ 1945ݪ ǵ . ڳ ϻջ:

     ϻջ 1987, ѳݹ 25 س 1992ݪ ӻٵ . óۻ . ͳ ϻջ: ݻ, û (1992-1993), ݷϳ (1996, 1999):

    Ͽ ݻ Ϳ :

    ٿ ѳݹ ϻջ ݳ . ͳ ٳ ݣ

г           

. ѳ γ ϻջ

     1938, ߿ ϳ 1942, ݷϳ 1963: ٿ .ճݣ

    ϻջ 1988 (񹻳ٵ ) 1997 (񹻳ٵ ۻ , ߳ ѳݷ ۻ):

    û 1999 (񹻳ٵ ٻϳݳ ʳ , ݳ˳ ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ݻ ѳ ):

    1992, ٿ ϳݷݳ ɻ ܳѳϳ ߳:

    Ͽ ݻ Ϳ .ػ廳 . :

          

. ڳ ϻջ

     1930, ϻջ ݻϳ ߿ ϳ 1941 ͪ 1957: ݻ, û ݷϳ:

     1980, ٿ ϳݷݳ ɻ ܳѳϳ (񹻳ٵ ٳϳѳ 廳 ):

    ϻջ 2002-2003 ݻ, ݳϳ ݻ 23 2004ݣ

    Ͽ ݻ Ϳ . ѳ :

          

¿ dz           

. ʳ ϻջ

     ܳݳϳ ϻջ ϳ 1930-1932 ϳݻ: ٿ . ճ:

        
    1974, ͪ 14 ٵ 1975: ϳݳ 1996: 2000 Ϳ û (񹻳ٵ ѳɿѳ سɻ)

    Ͽ ݻ Ϳ . ʳ :

    ٿ , ʳ , ﳷݳ ϳٳϻ . ʳ ϻջ:

                 

سϳ

                                                                                    

. ڳ س-߳                                           

     1992, ݳϳ ˳ ó, ۳ݳ ݻ ϳ ѳϳ ٳݳ . ˳ ٳ- ߳ ۳ųݻ سϳ ջݳ ó ݳѳݻ ߳:

    ݳϿ ϳ 8 س 1994, ݳ˳ûٵ . óۻ: 7 س 1995, ٳ- ߳ . ڳ س:

    24 1996, ϳ , ӻٵ . . . . . . γ ػ (ݳ˳ ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ):

    ٿ , 24, ﳷݳ ϳٳϻ سϳ:

                 

ܳѳϳ ϻջ

ػ ջ ܳѳϳ ߳ѳٳ

     ݳ . ٿ ϻջ    ų ϳ 1931: ϻջ ٿ ɻ ݳѳݻ ݻ:  . ٿ ϻջ ϳ 6 ٵ 1931, ӻٵ . ٿۻ (ûٵ ѳ ׻):

    15 ٵ 1959, Իݹ . ۻ ݳ˳ӻûٵ, ݳӻ ѳٻ ߳ӳ ϳݷݳ ݻ , ϳ 15 ۻٵ 1959:

   1984, . ˳ ߳ѳٳ ϳ: . ٿ ϻջ ٵûٵ ݹ :

   12 س 1985, ݳϿ ϳ , ӻٵ . γ ػ :

  ݳϳ ˳ݻ 1 ٵ 1989 ͪ 1990 ۻٵ:

   ߳ѳٳ ܳѳϳ ٳ ݻ 3-4 س 1991, ӻٵ . γ ػ : 24 2002, ѳٳ . γ ٿ: ߳ѳٳ ˳ ݻ .- ٳ ݳѳû , ϻݿ ݳ ߳, ˳ ٵ, ߳ٻ ϳ, ѻ ˳ճ: ܻݳ۳ ٿ ˳û, ݳѳû ջ ݻ (ݳ˳ͪ ׳ ٳϻ, ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳񳷿 γ ٳ뻳: ݳ ݻ ѳɿѳ ׳ ݹ سϻ ѳɿѳ ׳񳷿 ﻳ):

    ܳݳϳ ϻջ . ų ݻ 1928. ų ճ ݻݻ, ճ߿ ͳ۳ ϻջ, ߳ ٿ ٳϳ�:       

. ͳ ϻջ

    γ 1922 ͪ 1958: ٿ . ճ, û ݷϳ-(ݳ):

    1982, Ͽ ݻ ϳ . ػ س , ݳϳ ϳ 30 1980ݪ . óۻ ٿ:

      Ͽ ݻ ͻ . . ³ٳ :     

ǿ

. ݳ س-

    ǿ . ݳ ߳ ٳ ϳ ÿ ϳ 1380 ϳ - ݳ, ݳѳ . :

      ϻջ 1914:, 1995,   . ճ 񻽳 (ûٵ ѳɿѳ ѿ ׻, ݳ˳ͪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ݹ س뻳):

     ݻ ѳ, 1950ϳ ϳݻ , Իݹ . ۻ ٿ ﳷݳ ϳٳϻ . ݳ: ݹ ߳ݳ ݻݳ ٿ ݪ . . ݳ ۳ , . ͳݳ :

    . ݳ յ ϳ 1976:

    31 2003, û .óۻ ӻٵ ݳϳ ݳϻ ϳ ݻ ۳ .ݳ гݷﻳ ݣ

. ٿ ϻջ

    γ 1954, ݳ . ٳϳ ϻջ (ûٵ ѳɿѳ  ѳݿ ): ݻ, û ݷϳ: 1975, ϻջ Ͽ ݻ , 1993-1994 ݻ,ϻջ-- ѳٳ ѳ û г ϻݣ

      . س

      γͿ 1770,ǿ .ٳݳ ٿ, 1957ݣٳϳ ٳ   ϳݷ ѿ ݳݳϳ ٳ ٿ .ճݣ

ȳódz

   . ͳ ϻջ

   ȳó ϻջ-᷻ ѳٳ տ г dzû ٿ ϻջ ٻݳ ӳݳûݪ 1755: . , ȳó ٿ ϳ ߿ ÿ ѳݳ ۹ ϳ ݳ ϻջ (1254):

     1950, ݷϳ ͪ ϻջ: 1958-1959, 1970, 1973-1978 ϳݻ, ϻջ ó ٳݳ ݻ:

     1996, ݳ˳ӻûٵ . óϳ ûٵ ȳó ѳ , ϻջ : ճ. 񻽳 ϳ (ݳ˳ ٪ ɳódzѳ ׳ݻ ﻳ Ͽ):

     ϻջ ݳϳ . ճ ݻ 21 ٵ 1997, ӻٵ . óۻ:

    24 1977, ϳݷݳ ɻ ݳѳݻ ߳ . ͳ ϻջ Ͽ ݻ (ճ ٪ ɳódzѳ γ߻): ٿ ͻ .ܳѳϳ ų, ܳѳϳ ӳ (񻽳ͪ 1995):

. ͳ ϻջ

     . ͳ ϻջ-ٳ   ľ. 1865, û : 1880, ᷻-óϳ , ݹ ٳ ϳͪ ݻϳ ϻջ (ÿ ճͳ ): 1903, ݷϳ:

     1973, : 1992, 񻽳 ݻݳٳ: 20 ۻٵ 1992, , ӻٵ . γ ػ (ݳ˳ ٪ ѳɿѳ ׳ ݹ س뻳):

    1997, ϻջ ٵ ٿ : ϳ ݳ ϳ ѳϻ :

     ϻջ ٿ . ѳϻ , Ϳ :

     1939 , ٿ , . ͳ ٳ , ﳷݳ ϳ:

     ݳݳϳ ٳݳ . ͳ   ϻջ Ͽ ݻ: 1880, ϻջ ϳٳ ó, ݻ ѳϳ ٿ ﻳ . ۻﳷ ˳ͪ ݻϳ , ۳ ɳ 24 1964, ɻ ݳѳϳ ߳ӳ ߳ ݳѳݻ:

   . ͳ ϻջ

     1890: ݳϿ ϳ ǽ γ ٿ: ݻ ݷϳ ճͳ : 23 1942, ѳ ѻ ϻջ ͳݳ :

     1960 (񹻳ٵ ѳ ) ӻݳ ϻջ û, ݳݿ 50 ٻ ѳ: ݳϿ ϳ 4 ٵ 1960, ݳ˳ûٵ Իݹ . ۻ: ݳϳ ˳ݻ 1961, ѳݹ ϳ 1962 ݣ

   20 1991, ݷϳ (ûٵ ѳ سϻ) óճϳ ݻ:

   ߳ݳ ճ ݳ . ϻջ, ϳ 1908: 1947, ٿ . ٳ ϻջ ٿ: 1987, ߳ û ٿ:

                  

³ .

     ó ѳ : ݳ ϳ ó ÿ ճ ϻջ : ɻ ٻ ûٵ ѳ , ӻ ѳ, ϳݷ ݳ: 1986 ѳ ϳ ۹ ݳ:

³ . ϻջ

     ó ٳݳ . ϻջ: ̳ , ݻ ݹ , ٳٵ ϳݷ ݳ ɻ ѳ : ɻ ϻ: ϳ ѳۻ ӳݳ , ϳ ÿ ľ- ϳ ϻջ :

ܻ () . ͳ س-

    ܻ յ ճ :

    1939 ٳݳ, ﳷݳû , , ٿ ݳ: г.. ϻջ ﳷݳû ݳ , ﳷݳ ϳٳϻ . ͳ ٳ ߳ :

     1959, ݳ˳ӻûٵ . ͳ ϻջݻ óճϳ ݻ, ϳ . ͳ ٳ: ϳ 17 1959,ӻٵ Իݹ .忻

ݿǿ

           . ϻջ       
     . ٳϳ ϻջ ϳ 1875ݪ ݿǿ ٿ: ϳ ճ ͻݻ ϳû ѳٳӳ, 1875 û ϳ ճ , ϻջ 300 ݻ :

    1959, Իݹ . ۻ ݳ˳ӻûٵ, ݹ ϻջ ݳϳ ϳ: ݳϳ ݳϿ ϳ 9 1959, ߿ ϻջ 31 1960, ӻٵ Իݹ . ۻ:

    1997, . ٿ ٵ: 1991, ٿ . :

    ٿ , . ͳ ٳ ѳݹϳ , ﳷݳ ϳٳϻ . ϻջ:

. ϻջ

   1864, ȳó ᷻ dz ɳ ϳ ջݻ . ϻջ ٳ: гݳ, ݷ 1903: ϳ 1926:

    1958, Իݹ . ۻ ݳ˳ӻûٵ, ᷻ ϻջ (ûٵ ݻ dz г ):

     ϻջ ݻ 16 1958, ӻٵ Իݹ . ۻ:

     ѻ, ٿ , . ͳ ٳ ݳ˳ݳ, ﳷݳ ϳٳϻ :

. ͳ . ϻջݻ

     , , ϳݷݳ . ͳ ٳ . ϻջݻ: ճ ݹݳ :

    ۷ ϻջݻ 1466 㳷 ڳٳ ٿ: . ͳ ϻջ ݻ ݻ ѳݳ ߳ ׳ ݹ , . ϻջ ݻ ٿ :

. ٳ

     ѳ-ﻳ . ٳ , ѳݳ ϳ 1348: ܻϳ ݹ : ϻջ ۳ ӻ ݿ ݳ , ﻳ ǽ, ٳ ݹݻ ۳ ݳ:

     ϻջ ѳ ߻ ѳۻ ϳó ӳݳݻ ϳ, ûݻ ӳ : ϻջ ݻ ٿ :

     ϳ ÿ ѳۻ , ϻջ ﳷ ճݻ ٿ:

* * *

      » ϻջݻ ͳû ϻ óճϳ ݻ, ųݹϻ ݳ ۳ݳٵ: ³ճϳû ݳûٵ ͻ ݳ ݳ ٳݻ:

* * *

          ݳϳ dz     

      . ѻ ݳϳ dz ٵ ٳճ ݹ:

     1908, . ݳ˳ӻûٵ, гɿ ٿ ͳ . ѳٳ ѳ ݻ ᷻- dzû:

     1927, ݳ-۳ϳ dzû ݳϳ ׳ݻ ϳ г. ϻջ ݻ ճ ݹ » . û ݳϳ ٿ, 28 1930, ѳ ػ ѳ . . гݻ ݹ: ۹, 24 ۻٵ 1929, гɿ ٿ . ػϳ س ϻջ Ͽ ݻ, ߳ݳϿ ͻ : 1978 г. ϻջ ݻ ӳݳ ٻ , ѳϳ ɻ . . óۻ, ѻճϳ ˳ݻ . û ݳϳ ݳϳ dzû , -ͳûٵ ػ γû г. ϻջ ݻ û: , » ͻ 12 ݻ, 125 -ݻ 900-1000 ߳ϻûٵ:

      ݳϳ dzû  ˳ ˳ݻ .-ݳϳ ݻ ߳, ϳ ѳݻ, ݳϳ سݳ߳ ( 11 ѳݻ) г. ϻջ ݻ ѳϳϳ ųݻ ݳݹ ݻ ѳٳ ϳٳϻ ϳٳ óݻ ûٳϳ -ûٳϳ ѳٳٳݻ:

     ݳϳ dzû г. . ϻջ ᷻ յݻ :

 
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